Possibly these luo-connecting channels were the first acupuncture channels to be noticed and explored.
This page is more technical than many other pages on this site! If this is one of the first pages you encounter, I suggest you look first at other pages. Otherwise you'll be struggling a bit, because to read it you need some familiarity with other parts of acupuncture theory.
What about our introductory page on acupuncture channels?
These luo-connecting channels provide a network or web that interlaces all parts of the body, emanating outwards, or sideways, from the main or primary channels. This web lets one primary channel reach through to its partner.
This web or network is at two different levels, superficial and deep. The superficial network is seen in the small veins that appear during disease or after trauma, showing inflammation or blockage. This level lies just under the skin.
The deeper part is where chronic disease may end up, stuck in the 'Blood level' deep in the body. This Blood level is not so much at a depth measurable in inches or centimeters but in terms of seriousness, ie harder to cure.
Actually, the Chinese classics are much more precise than this.
They say that a pathogenic factor, ie something that causes illness, (in Chinese medicine this would be described as one or more of Wind, Cold, Damp etc) first invades the skin giving you goosebumps, it then reaches the level of the superficial luo-connecting channels causing pain in the muscles.
Then, unless expelled by your body or after appropriate treatment, it penetrates into the primary acupuncture channels, giving further pain along them, then to the Chong Mo with digestive problems, invading the membranes deep in the body cavities.
It then passes to the Blood vessels in the deep luo-connecting channels, where you may get Blood stasis, with masses, tumours, lumps and bumps.
Another kind of luo-connecting channel
The other usage of the term relates to discrete channels, rather like the primary acupuncture channels, which depart from specific points on the primary channels, called the luo points, or luo-connecting points, or junction points.
Each has a trajectory different from the primary channels.
This type of luo-connecting channel is what is usually meant by acupuncturists when they talk about luo-connecting channels.
The pathway of these luo-connecting channels is really useful for acupuncturists. It makes the luo-connecting points very dynamic in their action. This means that they can powerfully affect the areas covered by the luo channel.
How were luo-connecting channels discovered?
Well, of course, it all happened thousands of years ago, so nobody knows for sure! Here's what we surmise ...
Possibly, the original idea behind the luo-connecting points was that they described what happened to the skin and flesh when injured either by trauma or when someone got acutely ill, say from what we now describe as an infection.
- Take trauma first. After a bruise, strain or sprain, your flesh swells around the injury, and often changes colour. Small veins may appear either locally to the site of the injury or further along the acupuncture channel the trauma site lies on.
- Likewise, during an acute infection, there is often inflammation and sometimes swelling as well.
Under these circumstances, capillaries and smaller veins becomes swollen, and newly and temporarily visible. (These are quite distinct from the large veins which stand out naturally in people who are either thin or getting old.) The Chinese solution to this kind of vein was to release the internal pressure in these 'wounded' or inflamed areas by incising these new, temporary swollen veins with needles and squeezing out some of the blood that had collected there.
As a result of the trauma, this blood had been circulating only slowly, so had a darker hue. It was said to be stagnant. This idea led on later to deeper ideas about Blood and Blood-Stasis.
By bleeding the vein, new blood was able to reach the area and move through it faster than the stagnant blood it replaced, leading to faster healing.
Indeed, sometimes cupping was done after the initial incision, to allow more blood to flow. (This form of cupping is known as wet-cupping, and for various reasons, including danger of infection, is not generally recommended unless you know what you are doing and are insured.)
Those tiny veins and capillaries that subsequently sank back into invisibility showed a wealth of connections under the skin. The word the Chinese used for this was 'luo', meaning something like 'network'.
Later, they discovered certain acupuncture points on each acupuncture channel with a particular influence on specific areas of the body. These became known as the luo-connecting points.
In time, these points were recognised as having other properties and a whole theory, or even a set of theories, developed about them.
Theories behind luo-connecting channels
- NETWORK The first idea was the one explained above, that the luo channels covered the relatively superficial areas just under the skin, over or bordering the line of the main channel in question. As such, they explain areas that swell up in acute disease. Parts of this theory developed in later centuries explain what happens when the channels are exhausted or empty.
- CONNECTS WITH PARTNER CHANNEL This network idea means that each channel reaches out through the flesh to other adjacent channels, and particularly to its partner channel. For example, Lung and Large Intestine channels, or Spleen and Stomach channels.
- USES IN ACUTE DISEASE The luo-connecting points can be used to help clear or push out acute disease from the body. This applies particularly to those zang-fu that have most to do with the defence of the exterior of the body, including the skin, the nose and the lungs. Hence the Yang Ming channel of the Large Intestine, the Shao Yang channel of the Three Heater, and the Lung channel (the Lungs are said to 'rule the skin and pores'.
- TRANSFERRING QI The luo-connecting points can be used to transfer Qi between the channels. If one is 'full' the other may be 'empty', and these points are points of transfer. This is mainly useful when after a disease has passed there remains still a disparity, with symptoms indicating fullness in one of a pair and emptiness in its partner. This is named the 'host-guest theory', quite often used clinically.
- CONTRA-LATERAL USES It goes further. Sometimes the luo-connecting points are used to transfer energy from one side of the body to the other. This requires some technical knowledge of the pathways of the channels. The most common use of this, however, is to treat a pathogenic factor on one side of the body by using the luo-connecting point on the other side of the body. (This is where a knowledge of the pathways of the channels is important because you need to know which channel is affected.)
- PATHWAYS Each Luo-connecting channel also has its own deep pathway, no doubt discovered much later when all the primary acupuncture channels were being mapped out and their points located. This pathway often bears little resemblance to the superficial pathway of its own primary channel. Still, these deeper pathways and where they reach to can be very useful clinically. This means that each luo-connecting point has its own channel pathway, controlled, or at least influenced, by the point. Sometimes the description of the pathway is short, but sometimes it makes the use of that point very significant, either on its own or as part of a treatment strategy. For where each of these luo-connecting channels goes and does individually, click on the links below.
- DEFENDING Because the superficial luo-connecting channels are just under the skin, they carry the body's Wei or Defensive Qi. (Qi from what you eat, after being transported to the Lungs, becomes either Defensive Qi or Nutritive Qi, the latter being carried mainly by the Primary channels. Defensive Qi is carried by the luo-connecting channels.) This is important because as mentioned in 3/ above, the luo-connecting points can be used to stimulate this defensive Qi to push out invading pathogenic factors like Wind.
- WARMING Defensive Qi, being Yang, also warms the muscles and regulates the temperature of the body. At night, during sleep, Defensive Qi is said to go into the body's Yin interior where it is re-invigorated. So, if you don't get enough sleep, your defensive system is less effective AND you'll tend to feel colder during the day. So make sure you get your sleep! (Of course, if you don't eat enough, or you eat badly - see Nutrition - you won't have enough Qi in the first place to make either Defensive or Nutritive Qi, in which case you'll not only feel cold but you'll also be undernourished.)
- HARMONISING The name 'connecting' suggest yet another use, that of harmonising the interior and exterior, so many of the points can also be used to steady and regulate the body, for instance by calming the mind.
Many forms of stress, including emotional stress, interfere with the natural flow of Qi along the channels, causing Qi stagnation. This often lodges first in the luo-connecting channels, making the luo-connecting points all that more important in its treatment.
Treating the luo-connecting channels
Like all groupings of acupuncture points, (eg xi-cleft points, exit/entry points, etc) ways of treating them are sometimes easy to describe, sometimes less so.
The luo-connecting points have many uses. There are many ways to use them. For example:
- pricking enlarged veins to relieve pressure/pain
- to harmonise yin and yang
- to transfer Qi from one place to another
- to steady or calm
- to clear a pathogen or problem in an area reached by the channel
- the host-guest method to balance the energy in a pair of partnered channels
Links to Luo-connecting channels
List of Luo-connecting points
List of Luo-connecting points
- Lung 7, Lieque
- Large Intestine 6, Pianli
- Stomach 40, Fenglong
- Spleen 4, Gongsun
- Heart 5, Tongli
- Small Intestine 7, Zhizheng
- Bladder 58 Feiyang
- Kidney 4, Dazhong
- Pericardium 6, Neiguan
- Three Heater 5, Waiguan
- Gallbladder 37 Guangming
- Liver 5, Ligou
Find an Acupuncturist!
If you live in the Edinburgh area of Scotland, where the author of this site (and of the books described below) works, click on Edinburgh Acupuncturist.
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Jonathan Clogstoun-Willmott Books
Please note! The Kindle editions are less easy to read! Although the paper editions cost more, they are much easier to read and to refer back and forth to the contents and index.
Here are some of the books Jonathan has written:
Qi Stagnation - Signs of Stress
Yin Deficiency - Burnout and Exhaustion
Yang Deficiency - Get Your Fire Burning Again!
Western Astrology and Chinese Medicine
Yuck! Phlegm!: How to Clear Your Phlegm Using Ideas from Chinese Medicine (Chinese Medicine in English Book 4)
Still only one comment, though personally I think this is my best book so far.
Published 1986 and, amazingly, still selling. Was apparently used back then by at least one acupuncture college to help students understand Chinese medicine!
No comments yet: just published. (Despite the lurid cover, it explains the five main types of phlegm and what works best for each type. I hope it's easy to read and will be much more useful than all the websites on the subject.)
3000 years of Chinese being stressed, and at last, here's a book showing how all that experience can help you!
By the author of this website, it explains in simple English how to use stress to improve and enhance your life.
For the Latest Reviews of 'Qi Stagnation', click here!
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