Six Stages of Disease caused by Invasion of Cold

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The Six Stages of disease caused by penetration of Cold is a name that doesn't immediately thrill, does it?

But you'll know people who have been affected by it. They might have got better faster if they'd known what to do, rather than take painkillers and antibiotics.

In the thousand or more years up to AD220 when this theory was first explained in full, Chinese medicine had been developing along various lines. After Zhang Zhong Jing proposed it there arose a school of Chinese medicine which based all treatments on it: probably they went a bit overboard on this.

But we're the same. At various times, Western doctors believed in

  • the fluxes; 
  • the leeching of blood; 
  • the humours; 
  • disease caused by parasites; 
  • only medicines can cure infectious diseases (we may still be in this one).

A new theory seizes the high ground for a while. Usually it doesn't last more than a century.

Zhang Zhong Jing's theory lasted 1500 years before someone produced a theory that filled some of the 'holes' in his original theory.

We still use Zhang Zhong Jing's Six Stages theory every day. So this is a theory that stands the test of time.

The Six Stage theory

In our central-heated houses we may think that Cold can't touch us.

That wasn't the case 2000 years ago. People got sick from it, and many died. There might have been no infection, they just died from cold; and then only after their bodies had put up a powerful defence.

It would have been common in many parts of Northern China where in winter the temperature was frequently below freezing.

People worked physically outside from dawn to dusk. Not surprisingly then, they got cold. 

Physicians would have seen the effect of Cold. They did write about it in books prior to Zhang Zhong Jing, but he was the first to elaborate a full theory of it.

Nowadays some skiers don't wear enough, or get caught out when their ski-lift stops working for 30 minutes in a blizzard, and they get cold. Then they may get signs of Cold invasion and the first of the Six Stages, the Greater Yang stage.

The Six Stages theory deals with what happens as an invader enters through the skin or muscles: the flesh.

On other pages you can read about each of the six stages. Below you'll see links to each of those Six stages.

Briefly, it was observed that a healthy body mounts its defences in a particular order.

The battle starts in the most Yang areas - the Greater Yang (Tai Yang) stage. If the invader is strong and forces the defence backwards, the resistance puts up barriers at two further Yang levels, the Lesser Yang (Shao Yang) stage and the Bright Yang (Yang Ming) stage.

After that, the resistance retreats to the vital private inner levels, abandoning the Yang defences for the more vital Yin organs levels.

The outer Yang areas were more lively and energetic, with more restlessness and alternation of symptoms as the battle went back and forth.

When the battleground reaches inwards to the Yin areas, the defence is strong and persistent, at least to start with, but with less room for manoeuvre. 

In effect, it is like a medieval fort with a number of perimeter ramparts which are gradually breached by a strong invader. Eventually the defenders retreat to the inner tower. This is strong but, surrounded by a determined enemy, there is nowhere to go. It becomes a question of endurance.

So if a patient is stuck at these inner levels they will have less Yang energy for  the acupuncturist to call on. It can take a while, even with good treatment, to get them better. This is because the patient's best Yang energies are low, and the body survives only by persistence. At these levels, the patient has very little bounce left in him.

Some of these inner conditions can be reached other than by Cold invasion!

I have many patients who have conditions very similar to many of the symptoms of, for example, the Greater Yin stage.

They didn't get there from Cold invasion, at least as far as I know.

For others, it would take very little to push them towards the Greater Yin stage.

The beauty of the Six Stages theory is that Zhang Zhong Jing recommended specific treatments we can still use, because they work.

Even if they don't immediately work, we can understand what is going on and adapt our treatment.

That later theory? The Four Levels

The Four Levels is another huge theory, dealing with how Heat invades the body. Cold invasion requires no bacteria or virus for it to work although it doesn't absolutely exclude it.

Heat invasion means the the Four Levels theory deals with the kinds of diseases that modern medicine prides itself on being able to treat with antibiotics or to vaccinate us against. Here the invader enters via the mouth or nose, or through a wound or other orifice, like the eyes.

However, these days, antibiotics are being overtaken by the bugs and can no longer be relied on in many serious conditions like TB. In which case modern medicine should perhaps take another look at these old theories. They may be needed.

Together these two theories teach us a lot about health and how to help ill people to get better. Even today.

What are The Six Stages as Cold penetrates?

Note that this is not the order mostly used since antiquity, but makes more sense to me. For nerds, I'm with Giovanni Maciocia on this one.

Why are the Six Stages in this order?

Simplifying this a bit ... in the order from Great Yang to Lesser Yin, you move from acupuncture channels that run up: -

  • the back of the legs and arms, being the Bladder and Small Intestine channels - Greater Yang - to
  • the sides, being the Gallbladder and Three Heater channels - Shao Yang - to
  • the front of the legs, lateral to the shinbone, being the Stomach channel, and on the arm, its equivalent being the Large Intestine channel - Bright Yang - to
  • the front of the leg, medial to the shinbone, being the Spleen channel, with its equivalent on the arm the Lung channel - Greater Yin - to
  • the middle of the leg, medial to the Spleen channel, being the Liver channel, its equivalent on the arm being the Pericardium channel - Jue Yin - to
  • the inner leg most medial to the shinbone, being the Kidney channel, with its equivalent on the arm being the Heart channel - Lesser Yin.

Similarly, on the torso, the channel nearest to the spine on the back is the Bladder channel, and that closest to the midline at the front is the Kidney channel.

So you start with your body defending itself using its most Yang area, your back, and as the disease penetrates your body abandons each of its 'perimeter ramparts' in turn, ending up with the innermost, that of the Heart and Kidney.

Often, in my experience, the use of inappropriate treatments prevents your body from maintaining its defence at the outermost levels, allowing the disease to penetrate to inner levels.

Typically, the level where the disease is then held is the Greater Yin stage, that of the Spleen and Lungs. It's held here by use of medication for digestive problems and for respiratory problems like asthma. However, this is not the end of it. Read 'remaining pathogenic factor'.


When, above, you read that the invader marched in or trampled over the defences, it makes it seem like a huge bogeyman.

Of course, there is no actual 'cold' bogeyman! Modern physics tells us that cold happens when molecules move more slowly whereas heat happens when they have more energy.

So 'cold' is more like a lack of 'heat'.

Nevertheless, when treating it, one can learn what to do by pretending it is a bogeyman and behaving accordingly. In a way, that's what your body does, only giving way inch by inch, backing inwards. Or, when you help it, forcing the invader back out the way 'he' entered.

And as a bogeyman, the invader doesn't necessarily play by the rules! He can jump from stage to stage, or be in more than one stage of the six stages at a time. So acupuncturists need to be flexible in their treatments, and often somewhat imaginative.

Chronic Disease

Often, nowadays, because usually of modern treatments that prevent (Suppression) the body  doing what it is designed to do, the body reaches a kind of stalemate.

It can't get better and it doesn't get worse.

Symptoms become chronic. Helping people out of this can be tricky.


Homoeopathy also has very deep theories about this, with ways to prompt the body to move in the right direction, and rightly done, improvement can be huge.

But it can take time, which most of us are too impatient to wait for.

Also, we've become used to painless results of treatment, and homoeopaths doing their treatment often get complaints - but the complaints are usually mild, because the patient is feeling so much better and more energetic overall, and the pain felt is mild.

Chinese medicine, rightly done, can do this, but for deep cure, I find homoeopathy better. But it is not necessarily easy, or possible for everyone to go along that route. AND, it requires a good homoeopath.

Any Other Theories in Chinese Medicine - you ask?

Of course! After 3000 years, TCM has lots! They all inter-relate to some extent, and acupuncturists use whichever is most appropriate to the condition being treated.

They include:

  • Stems and Branches
  • 8 Principles
  • 5 Phases or Elements
  • Zang Fu Theory
  • San Jiao Theory
  • Channel theory
  • Yin, Yang, Qi and Blood 
  • Blood and Fluids theory
  • Hara diagnosis - though this is more Japanese acupuncture theory

And there's more! In some cases, substantial papers have been written about the use of just one acupuncture point.

Find an Acupuncturist!

If you live in the Edinburgh area of Scotland, where the author of this site (and of the books described below) works, click on Edinburgh Acupuncturist.

If you live elsewhere, click on BAcC.

Jonathan Clogstoun-Willmott Books

Please note! The Kindle editions are less easy to read! Although the paper editions cost more, they are much easier to read and to refer back and forth to the contents and index. 

Here are some of the books Jonathan has written:

Qi Stagnation - Signs of Stress

Yin Deficiency - Burnout and Exhaustion

Yang Deficiency - Get Your Fire Burning Again!

Western Astrology and Chinese Medicine

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