Three Heater 5 Waiguan (Outer Frontier Gate)

Three Heater 5 is an important acupuncture point, useful in many situations including invasion by wind and mental defiance.
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Wiguan, Three Heater 5, is the fifth point on the Three Heater acupuncture channel.

  • Luo-connecting or junction point
  • Master or Confluent point of the Yang Linking vessel


Three heater 5


On the posterior surface of the forearm,  between the radius and the ulna bones 2 cun proximal to the wrist flexure, on the radial side of the extensor digitorum communis tendon.



Insert either slightly obliquely distally or proximally, or laterally towards the ulna bone. Depth up to 1.5 cun. Can needle it through to Neiguan, Pericardium 6.


Needle Sensation of Waiguan

Strong local gripping sensation which may extend towards the fingers.



Moxibustion: Up to 3x.


Actions of Three Heater 5 

  • Dispels Wind
  • Relieves Exterior symptoms
  • Clears Heat
  • Opens the channel and so clears obstruction and pain
  • Clears stagnant Qi in the channel
  • Opens the Yang Linking vessel
  • Regulates the ‘middle burning space’ ie below the diaphragm and above the umbilicus


Possibly better for Wind-Heat than for Wind-Cold, as in febrile diseases. However, can be used with Large Intestine 4 for Wind-Cold.

For appropriate syndromes or for areas reached by this channel or the Gallbladder channel:

  • Treats the lateral aspect of the head, shoulder and torso
  • Eye pain and inflammation
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  • Headaches of many kinds especially those caused by excess Yang
  • Cheek pain, paralysis, numbness, tingling
  • Hypochondriacal pain
  • Swelling in the side of the neck, eg from glands
  • Ear problems such as deafness and tinnitus (these would be acute, rather than chronic conditions)
  • Motor problems, weakness, cramp or pain in the arm, elbow, wrist, hand or fingers
  • As an important point for clearing invasion by external pathogenic factors, can be used eg for Wind-Damp and Summer-Heat.
  • Stiff neck, especially along the pathway of the channel
  • Finger pains
  • Hand tremor (when caused by exterior Wind: this point is less effective for tremor from interior Wind)
  • As opening point for the Yang Linking vessel, seems to help people made angry by obstruction, or who have adopted a malcontened or defiant viewpoint and are not amenable to other ideas or who refuse to accept harmony with others
  • Useful for depression associated with relationships


Comment on Three Heater 5

Waiguan, Three Heater 5, was a popular point in the hospital clinic when I trained in China. We had many very vigorous manual workers who got caught by intense cold weather.

The syndromes they developed usually responded well to this point.

Although its name, ‘Outer Frontier Gate’ shows that its main properties concern attack by exterior disease, I have also used it for strong internal Wind syndromes, together with other points dealing with the interior deficiency.

I don’t usually use it alone. Other points, often local, ‘direct’ its Qi.

Three Heater 5 does so much that sometimes it seems no other point on the channel is needed: but they are, very much.

To understand better its action, click on Three Heater luo channel.

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